The Sumatran Earthquakes In April Were Part Of A Major Tectonic Plate Breakup


The Prophetic Scenery Is Getting Ready
For The Coming Of Moshiach
And Our Redemption

But Before That The Ride Is Going to Get Much Rougher

We Need Continual Emunah and Tshuvah
For What Is Coming Our Way

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17  Pachad (fear), and the pachat (pit), and the pach (snare), are upon you, inhabitant of ha’aretz (the earth).  18  And it shall come to pass, that he who flees from the noise of the pachad (fear) shall fall into the pachat (pit), and he that comes up out of the midst of the pachat (pit) shall be caught in the pach (snare); because the arubot (windows) from On High are opened, and the mosedei eretz (foundations of the earth) shake.  19  Ha’aretz (the Earth) is violently broken down, ha’aretz is completely split open, ha’eretz is shaken exceedingly.  20  Ha’aretz shall stagger to and fro like a shikkor (drunkard), and it shall shake like a melunah (watchman’s hut).  And the peysha (transgression) of it shall be heavy upon it.  And it shall fall, and not rise again.  21  And it shall come to pass b’Yom hahu (in that Day) that HaShem shall visit [in punishment] the Tzeva HaMarom (Host on High, Pagan deities), and the melachim ha’adamah (kings of the earth) upon ha’adamah (the earth).

Planet Earth may be 4.5 billion years old, but that doesn’t mean it can’t serve up a shattering surprise now and again.

Such was the case on April 11 when two massive earthquakes erupted beneath the Indian Ocean off the coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, far from the usual danger zones. Now scientists say the seafloor ruptures are part of a long suspected, yet never before observed, event: the slow-motion splitting of a vast tectonic plate.

Sumatran Quake

The first of the quakes, a magnitude 8.7, was 20 times more powerful than California’s long anticipated “big one” and tore a complex network of faults deep in the ocean floor. The violence also triggered unusually large aftershocks thousands of miles away, including four off North America’s western coast.

“It was jaw-dropping,” said Thorne Lay, a professor of Earth and planetary sciences at UC Santa Cruz. “It was like nothing we’d ever seen.”

At first, Lay wondered whether the computer code he used to analyze earthquakes was wrong. Eventually, he and other scientists realized that they had documented the breakup of the Indo-Australian plate into two pieces, an epic process that began roughly 50 million years ago and will continue for tens of millions more. Lay and other scientists reported their findings online Wednesday in the journal Nature.

Most great earthquakes occur along plate borders, where one plate dives beneath the adjoining plate and sinks deep into Earth’s mantle, a process called subduction. The April 11 quakes, however, occurred in the middle of the plate and involved a number of strike-slip faults, meaning the ground on one side of the fault moves horizontally past ground on the other side.

Scientists say the 8.7 main shock broke four faults. The quake lasted 2 minutes and 40 seconds — most last just seconds — and was followed by a second main shock, of magnitude 8.2, two hours later.

Unlike the magnitude 9.1 temblor that struck in the same region on Dec. 26, 2004, and created a deadly tsunami, the April 11 quakes did not cause similar destruction. That’s because horizontally moving strike-slip faults do not induce the massive, vertical displacement of water that thrust faults do on the borders of plates.

The type of interplate faults involved in the Sumatran quakes are the result of monumental forces, some of which drove the land mass of India into Asia millions of years ago and lifted the Himalayan Mountains. As the Indo-Australian plate continues to slide northwest, the western portion of the plate, where India is, has been grinding against and underneath Asia. But the eastern portion of the plate, which contains Australia, keeps on moving without the same obstruction. That difference creates squeezing pressure in the area where the quakes occurred.

The study authors say that over time, as more quakes occur and new ruptures appear, the cracks will eventually coalesce into a single fissure.

“This is part of the messy business of breaking up a plate,” said University of Utah seismologist Keith Koper, senior author of one of the studies. “Most likely it will take thousands of similar large quakes for that to happen.”

The quakes were also notable for triggering powerful aftershocks thousands of miles away. Though major quakes have been known to trigger aftershocks at great distance, they are usually less than 5.5 in magnitude. The April earthquakes triggered 11 aftershocks that measured 5.5 or greater in the six days that followed, including a magnitude 7. Remote shocks were felt 6,000 to 12,000 miles from the main quakes.

Fred Pollitz, a geophysicist with the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., and lead author of one of the studies, said the quakes were extremely effective in transmitting seismic wave radiation around the world. Though Pollitz said the magnitude of the larger Sumatran quake is No. 10 on the list of quakes since 1900, no other temblor has triggered so many strong aftershocks so far away.

“It’s the most powerful earthquake ever in terms of capability of putting stress on other fault zones around the world,” he said.

Pollitz said the quakes were likely to teach seismologists about the physics of earthquakes, particularly those along strike-slip faults. That knowledge, he said, would certainly apply to California’s San Andreas fault, which is also a strike-slip fault.

Lay said that the Sumatran quakes were most surprising in that they were completely unanticipated by seismologists and that he did not expect the event to repeat any time soon.

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Source: LAtimes

China’s Yangtze River Mysteriously Turns Blood Red


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Have You Noticed How Weird Nature Really Has Become?
Clearly HaShem Is Warning Us Of Things To Come Before Redemption

The Meaning of the Sign – independent of its “Natural Cause” –
is Evident:  “Rivers of Blood in the Near Future”

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For a river known as the “Golden Watercourse,” red is a strange color to see. Yet that’s the shade turning up in the Yangtze River and officials have no idea why.

The red began appearing in the Yangtze – the longest and largest river in China and the third longest river in the world – on September 6, near the city of Chongquing, where the Yangtze connects to the Jialin River.

The Yangtze, called “golden” because of the heavy rainfall it receives year-round, runs through Chongqing, Southwest China’s largest industrial and commercial center, also known as the “mountain city” because of the hills and peaks upon which its many buildings and factories stand.

The red color stopped some residents in their tracks. They put water from the river in bottles to save it. Fishermen and other workers who rely on the river for income kept going about their business, according to the ‘Daily Mail’.

While the river’s red coloring was most pronounced near Chongqing it was also reported at several other points. Officials are reportedly investigating the cause.

Source: ABC News

Giant ‘Balloon of Magma’ Inflates Under the Santorini Volcano


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Have you Noticed How Weird Nature has Become?
HaShem is Preparing Nature for the Day of Gog uMagog

 A new survey suggests that the chamber of molten rock beneath Santorini’s volcano expanded 10-20 million cubic metres – up to 15 times the size of London’s Olympic Stadium – between January 2011 and April 2012

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Factory of Death

The growth of this ‘balloon’ of magma has seen the surface of the island of the very dangerous volcano Santorini rise 8-14 centimetres during this period, a team led by Oxford University scientists has found. The results come from an expedition, funded by the UK’s Natural Environment Research Council, which used satellite radar images and Global Positioning System receivers (GPS) that can detect movements of the Earth’s surface of just a few millimetres.

The findings are helping scientists to understand more about the inner workings of the volcano which had its last major explosive eruption 3,600 years ago, burying the islands of Santorini under metres of pumice. However, it still does not provide an answer to the biggest question of all:  When will Santorini erupt?’

A report of the research appears in this week’s Nature Geoscience. In January 2011, a series of small earthquakes began beneath the islands of Santorini. Most were so small they could only be detected with sensitive seismometers but it was the first sign of activity beneath the volcano to be detected for 25 years.

Following the earthquakes Michelle Parks, an Oxford University DPhil student, spotted signs of movement of the Earth’s surface on Santorini in satellite radar images. Oxford University undergraduate students then helped researchers complete a new survey of the island. Michelle Parks of Oxford University’s Department of Earth Sciences, an author of the paper, said:

“During my field visits to Santorini in 2011, it became apparent that many of the locals were aware of a change in the behaviour of their volcano. The tour guides, who visit the volcano several times a day, would update me on changes in the amount of strong smelling gas being released from the summit, or changes in the colour of the water in some of the bays around the islands. On one particular day in April 2011, two guides told me they had felt an earthquake while they were on the volcano and that the motion of the ground had actually made them jump. Locals working in restaurants on the main island of Thera became aware of the increase in earthquake activity due to the vibration and clinking of glasses in their bars.”

Dr Juliet Biggs of Bristol University, also an author of the paper, said:

“People were obviously aware that something was happening to the volcano, but it wasn’t until we saw the changes in the GPS, and the uplift on the radar images that we really knew that molten rock was being injected at such a shallow level beneath the volcano. Many volcanologists study the rocks produced by old eruptions to understand what happened in the past, so it’s exciting to use cutting-edge satellite technology to link that to what’s going on in the volcanic plumbing system right now.”

Professor David Pyle of Oxford University’s Department of Earth Sciences, an author of the paper, said:

“For me, the challenge of this project is to understand how the information on how the volcano is behaving right now can be squared with what we thought we knew about the volcano, based on the studies of both recent and ancient eruptions. There are very few volcanoes where we have such detailed information about their past history.”

The team calculate that the amount of molten rock that has arrived beneath Santorini in the past year is the equivalent of about 10-20 years growth of the volcano. But this does not mean that an eruption is about to happen: in fact the rate of earthquake activity has dropped off in the past few months. More information: A report of this research, entitled ‘Evolution of Santorini Volcano dominated by episodic and rapid fluxes of melt from depth’, is published in the journal Nature Geosience on Sunday 09 September.

Source: Phys.org